A discussion on whether stimulants should be prescribed for adhd children

Overall, we found that the most information about long-term outcomes applies to boys ages 7 to 9 years at intervention. Preschoolers with diagnosed ADHDgirls, teenagers, and adults have rarely been the focus of intervention research. In general, safe and effective interventions have been identified. Parent behavior training for preschoolers is efficacious and benefits appear to last, although many parents drop out of treatment.

A discussion on whether stimulants should be prescribed for adhd children

Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Creative Commons Deed, Attribution 2. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Prescription stimulants are often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD. Drugs like methylphenidate Ritalin, Concertadextroamphetamine Dexedrineand dextroamphetamine-amphetamine Adderall help people with ADHD feel more focused.

However, misuse of stimulants by ADHD and nonaffected individuals has dramatically increased over recent years based on students' misconceptions or simple lack of knowledge of associated risks. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the use and increasing misuse of prescription stimulants among high school and college students and athletes.

Given the widespread belief that stimulants enhance performance, there are in fact only a few studies reporting the cognitive enhancing effects of stimulants in ADHD and nonaffected individuals.

Student athletes should be apprised of the very serious consequences that can emerge when stimulants are used to improve sports performance. Moreover, misuse of stimulants is associated with dangers including psychosis, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and even sudden death.

As ADHD medications are prescribed for long-term treatment, there is a need for long-term safety studies and education on the health risks associated with misuse is imperative. ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric conditions of childhood Wilens et al.

ADHD is diagnosed in boys at a rate of two to four times that of girls, although this observation may be the result of referral patterns from teachers Sciutto et al. Overall, the prevalence of ADHD in adults ranges from 3. Differences across ethnic groups within the United States are sometimes found, but seem to be more of the function of social class than ethnicity Bloom and Cohen ADHD is found in all countries surveyed with rates similar to, if not higher than, those found in North America Faraone et al.

Thus, adult ADHD is one of the most common adult psychiatric disorders. Individuals with ADHD often have substantial functional impairment in academic, family, and social settings. Youth with ADHD are at an increased risk for academic failure because of learning or language problems. Other consequences associated with ADHD include dangerous driving, impaired peer relationships, delinquent behavior, and impulsive sexuality Putukian et al.

Moreover, when ADHD is untreated, there is increased prevalence of certain psychological disorders e. However, early treatment may decrease negative outcomes of ADHD including the rate of conduct disorder and adult antisocial personality disorder Dopheide and Pliszka There are both pharmacological and nonpharmacological e.

At the same time, many studies have revealed the numerous adverse effects associated with prescription stimulants when they are used inappropriately. Stimulants are classified as Schedule II drugs i.

The nonmedical use of prescription stimulants represents the second common most form of illicit drug use in college, second only to marijuana use Johnston et al. Stimulant misuse is often predicted on individuals' misconceptions or simple lack of knowledge of associated risks.

This review discusses recent studies regarding the use and misuse of stimulants among high school and college students, including athletes, with and without ADHD.

Athletes may see stimulants as a way to help maintain physical fitness for their competitive sport or to improve their concentration. Finally, we elaborate on the long-term effects of chronic stimulant use.

Addiction and tolerance are major concerns, as are psychosis and cardiovascular effects. Surprisingly, these associated risks of stimulant misuse are not frequently addressed in the media and literature. Clearly, the widespread misuse of prescription stimulants represents an important public health issue faced by students, school officials, health centers, and parents.

A hand search of psychiatry journals was performed and reference lists from relevant studies were searched. The prescribed use of stimulant medications to treat ADHD in children age 18 and younger rose steadily from tofrom an estimated 2. Overall, prescription stimulant use among 6- to year-olds is highest, going from 4.

MPH is a short-acting stimulant drug.

ADHD and the stimulants are prescribed :( - Gifted Issues Discussion Forum

Generic MPH is available in many forms, and several versions of the long-acting MPH have been introduced, with Concerta getting the largest share of the market.Why Do Stimulants Work for Treatment of ADHD?

So why do doctors give stimulants to kids with ADHD? It seems so counter-intuitive. Should stimulants and anti-depressants be used together for ADHD if my child doesn't have depression?

A discussion on whether stimulants should be prescribed for adhd children

Stimulant and Related Medications: Use in Adults 3 In , the FDA instructed the manufacturers of medications approved for the treatment of ADHD to develop Medication Guides to be dispensed with every. Apr 16,  · Welcome to the Gifted Issues Discussion Forum. We invite you to share your experiences and to post information about advocacy, research and other gifted education issues on this free public discussion forum.

Stimulants and Nonstimulants for ADHD Stimulants Adderall and Adderall XR (amphetamine mixtures) for treatment of ADHD, and they are prescribed “off-label.” The use of a medication for its approved indi- school, for growth catch-up.

Children and adolescents taking stimulants require close monitoring for growth. The Decision to Medicate Top 10 Questions About ADHD Medications for Children Answered! If you’re considering an ADHD medication for your child, you need to know how stimulants — methylphenidate or amphetamine — and nonstimulants work, whether risks exist, and what dosages and frequencies are normal.

A discussion on whether stimulants should be prescribed for adhd children
The question of whether or not stimulants should be prescribed for adhd children