Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years. One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism -- the ability to walk on two legs -- evolved over 4 million years ago. Other important human characteristics -- such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language -- developed more recently.
The origins of workforce management lies in the arrangements made for the welfare of apprentices working with the master craftsmen in the putting out system that prevailed during the medieval ages. The industrial revolution that led to the establishment of factories displaced the putting out system.
The workers in the early factories faced long hours of works under extremely unhygienic conditions, and mostly lived in slums. This soon resulted in several labor riots, the most famous being Ludds riots of in Nottingham, England, precipitated by reduced wages.
The government soon intervened to provide basic rights and protections for workers, and the need to comply with such statutory regulations forced factory owners to set up a formal mechanism to look into workers wages and welfare, and redress other issues concerning labor.
This led to the emergence of Personnel Management as a distinct profession. Arising out of the need to enforce statutory compliance, it concerned itself primarily with employee record keeping adherence to the stated policies while implementing functions such as recruitment, training and wage administration taking welfare oriented measures such as providing medical care, vaccinations, housing facilities and the like attempting to increase productivity through wage increases and training, and enforcement of standards derived from work studies influenced by the scientific management approach promulgated by Frederick Taylor and the like dealing with trade unions and trying to solve industrial disputes through collective bargaining and other industrial relations approaches.
The Traditional Human Resource Approach The latter decades of the twentieth century saw the winds of change starting to affect the personnel management profession. A host of new theories emerged based on this new behavioral perspective.
Government interventions led to the enactment of new legislations that guaranteed workers more rights.
– The New York Times is the first major publication to use the word "homosexuality". - Karol Szymanowski, Poland's openly gay composer, is appointed chief of Poland's state-owned national music school, the Fryderyk Chopin Music Academy. The world’s oldest known rice paddy fields, discovered in eastern China in , reveal evidence of ancient cultivation techniques such as flood and fire control. In Mexico, squash cultivation began around 10, years ago, but corn (maize) had to wait for natural genetic mutations to be selected for in its wild ancestor, teosinte. Crash Course Big History takes a look at Humans, one of the weirdest examples of change in the Universe. Around for only , years, we are truly one of the most complex things in the cosmos.
All these changed soon led to the transition from the administrative and passive Personnel Management approach to a more dynamic Human Resource Management approach.
This new approach considered workers as valuable resources, a marked improvement from the earlier approach of considering them as mere cogs.
While Personnel Management was a strictly staff function, Human Resource management began to become an increasingly line management function, directly interlinked to the core business operations. The major changes in approach from Personnel Management vs Human Resource Management manifested in many ways.
Motivation took the shape of challenging work environment, free holidays, creating an active social community within the workforce, fringe benefits and the like, besides monetary incentives. Wage and Salary Administration became more complex with the introduction of performance related pay, employee stock options and the like The report-card based performance appraisal systems become more proactive with new techniques such as Management by Objectives, degree appraisals and the like emphasis on leadership instead of managing Image Credit: Increased free market competition at global level and the proliferation of technology and knowledge based industries raised the importance of human resources, and from an obscure role a century ago, human resource management rose to become the most critical function of an enterprise.
The thrust of human resource management now lies in trying to align individual goals and objectives with corporate goals and objectives, and rather than enforce rules or dictate terms, act as a facilitator and promotes a participative approach. These changes influenced Human Resources functions in many ways.The Evolution of Human Rights in Canada Dr.
Dominique Clément Will Silver. Dr. Daniel Trottier. The opinions expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Canadian Human Rights Commission.
This document may be reproduced free of charge as long as acknowledgement is made of the source. Newsdesk › Home › Fact Sheets › Milestones in Human Evolution. Fact Sheets. Milestones in Human Evolution.
March 17, Oldest definite early human footprint trails, with footprints of other animals and environmental evidence. First major technological innovation. Hand axes are made. Suddenly, within an hour of hitting that milestone, the system pumps out the grand theory of physics that unifies general relativity and quantum mechanics, something no human has been able to definitively do.
90 minutes after that, the AI has become an ASI, , times more intelligent than a human. Personnel management was an administrative oriented function basing itself of Taylors scientific management approach. However, the origins of human resource management dates to the industrial revolution when factory owners established a department to look into wages, welfare and other labor related issues.
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