This someone is called the franchisor who is the owner of the business providing the products and services and assigned this business to independent individual called the franchisees. Most people think that the most easy and profitable business to build nowadays is franchising. They things that you have to to is to invest money without thinking that there is also a need of lot of hard work, marketing and management skills and a lot of perseverance to learn that process of franchising in order to be successful. The following are some franchising mistakes:
Viruses are acellular bioactive parasites that attack virtually every form of cellular life. Their shape is either pseudospherical with icosahedral symmetry, as in the poliomyelitis virus, or rodlike, as in the tobacco mosaic virus TMV.
A virus surrounded only by protein coat capsid is a naked virus; some viruses e. Hepatitis G HGV [ 59 ] viral loads in symptomatic patients are 0. Thus the typical blood particle burdens in viremia are much the same as in bacteremia, roughly 0.
Viral infections can be very difficult to eradicate pharmaceutically, as most treatments are virustatic, not virucidal. Disseminated systemic candidiasis is effectively managed with 0. Respiratory fungal histoplasmosis Histoplasma capulatum may be treated with oral doses of itraconazole at 0.
Blood parasites typically have a juvenile form that is ovoid or ring-shaped with dimensions of microns, and an adult tubular form measuring microns in width and microns in length [ 68 ]. In Trypanosoma brucei, the number of trypanosomes in blood fluctuates in waves, and the organisms are typically undetectable for 3 out of 5 days [ 69 ].
Trypomastigotes have an I. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense inoculated into mice has an LD50 of 0. Malaria may be treated with several oral doses of chloroquine phosphate totalling 2. The infection is characterized by repetitive cycles of bloodborne organisms, or rickettsemia.
However, most of these parasites are found in the red cells, and the organism's appearance in the blood plasma is incidental to its activity. Plasma titers for free R. Microbivore Scaling Analysis and Baseline Design The foregoing review suggests that existing treatments for many septicemic agents often require large quantities of medications that must be applied over long periods of time, and often achieve only incomplete eradication, or merely growth arrest, of the pathogen.
A nanorobotic device that could safely provide quick and complete eradication of bloodborne pathogens using relatively low doses of devices would be a welcome addition to the physician's therapeutic armamentarium.
The following analysis assumes a bacterial target e.
The microbivore is an oblate spheroidal nanomedical device consisting of billion precisely arranged structural atoms plus another billion mostly gas or water molecules when fully loaded Section 3. The nanorobot measures 3.
Its gross geometric volume of The device may consume up to pW of continuous power while in operation and can completely digest trapped microbes at a maximum throughput of 2 micron3 per second cycle, large enough to internalize almost all relevant microbes in a single gulp.
As in previous designs [ 2 ], to help ensure high reliability the system presented here has tenfold redundancy in all major components, excluding only the largest passive structural elements. During each cycle of operation, the target bacterium is bound to the surface of the microbivore via species-specific reversible binding sites [ 1 ].
Telescoping robotic grapples emerge from silos in the device surface, establish secure anchorage to the microbe's plasma membrane, then transport the pathogen to the ingestion port at the front of the device where the cell is internalized into a morcellation chamber. After sufficient mechanical mincing, the morcellated remains are pistoned into a digestion chamber where a preprogrammed sequence of engineered enzymes are successively injected and extracted, reducing the morcellate primarily to monoresidue amino acids, mononucleotides, glycerol, free fatty acids and simple sugars, which are then harmlessly discharged into the environment through an exhaust port at the rear of the device, completing the cycle.
This "digest and discharge" protocol [ 1 ] is conceptually similar to the internalization and digestion process practiced by natural phagocytes, but the artificial process should be much faster and cleaner.
For example, it is well-known that macrophages release biologically active compounds such as muramyl peptides during bacteriophagy [ 76 ], whereas well-designed microbivores need only release biologically inactive effluent.
The microbivore digestive system has four fundamental components -- an array of reversible binding sites to initially bind and trap target microbes Section 3.
A collision between a bacterium of the target species and the nanorobotic device brings their surfaces into intimate contact, allowing reversible binding sites on the microbivore hull to recognize and weakly bind to the bacterium. Binding sites can already be engineered [ 7778 ].
Bacterial membranes are quite distinctive, including such obvious markers as the family of outer-membrane trimeric channel proteins called porins in gram-negative bacteria like E.How Do I Write a Grant? Proposal writing is just one step in the grant-seeking process.
It must be part of a process of planning and of research: Far more time should be spent developing the program or project and researching and cultivating donors than preparing the actual proposal. Use these Concept Proposal templates to create the first documents in the Software Development Life Cycle..
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Concept Paper Format for Doctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses by Marianne Di Pierro, Ph.D. Statement of the Problem: a rational and reasoned argument that posits the "problem" as problem and.